A genetic biomarker is described as a known DNA sequence that causes disease or is associated with susceptibility to disease. Using genetic biomarkers to predict the severity of MS for a person as well as how that person is likely to respond to treatment would tremendously improve our ability to manage the disease for that patient. Precision health is about prescribing an individual patient with the right drug, at the the right dose, at the right time. This would allow for earlier intervention and the increased potential to slow progression.
The largest risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoking. However, a proportion of patients (25%-45%) with COPD have never smoked4. This shows that there are other genetic and environmental risk factors which are involved in the development of COPD.
The severity of COPD ranges from person to person. People with a mild form of COPD can reduce the progression of COPD with little therapy by stopping smoking. Forms of medication include short- and long-term bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroid medications and oral corticosteroids for periods when COPD becomes more severe.
People with moderate to severe COPD may need additional lung therapies such as oxygen therapies or ventilation therapy. Surgery such as lung transplant and lung volume reduction surgery are the only options for some people with severe COPD who aren't helped sufficiently by medications alone.
COPD is the collective term for a complex group of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and chronic obstructive airways disease. These chronic diseases are characterised by a gradual progressive decline in lung function with partially reversible airflow obstruction, systemic manifestations and increasing frequency and severity of exacerbations over time.
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